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英语标点的正确使用(2)

来源:  投稿:  时间:2012-03-30 点击:

学生家长互动我有问题要解答,我要提问?

  逗号/逗点在中文或英文里是再普通不过的一个标点符号;可是,它的用法在中文和英

  里可就不一定相同了。

  二、Comma (,) 逗号、逗点

  在英文里,逗号的用途有:

  * 连接句子里不同的成份

  * 分开句子里不同的成份

  * 突出句子里的某个成份

  * 替代句子里的某个成份

  成份指:词、短语(phrase)、子句(clause)等。

  2.1 连接句子里不同的成份

  2.1.1 逗号用在以 and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet 等连接词的两个主要子句之间:

  1. My father is fond of fishing, but my mother prefers hiking. (以 ,but 连接两个子句)

  2. He painted the exterior of the house, and she painted the interior. (以,and 连接两个子句)

  ========================================================

  2.2 分开句子里不同的成份

  2.2.1 用逗号分开两个以上的并列形容词:(如果并列的形容词之间可加上and,but等,那就加上逗号;否则不可)

  1. That tall, distinguished, good looking fellow. (可写成 He is a tall and distinguished fellow.)

  2. She is a little and old lady. (不可写成 She is a little, old lady.)

  ----------------------------------------------------------------

  2.2.2 在两个修饰主语的短语之间加上逗号(句短可不加):

  1. While waiting for the bus on that cold rainy night, she started sneezing. (主语she)

  2. At 10 o"clock the bus arrived. (不必写成 At 10 o"clock, the busarrived.)

  ----------------------------------------------------------------

  2.2.3 在 Jr., Sr., Esq., Ph.D., F.R.S., Inc., 等名称之前及后都要加上逗号(除了所有格的名称):

  1. They identified him as Howard R. Williams, Jr., chairman of their board.(,Jr.,)

  2. That is Howard R. Williams, Jr."s company. (,Jr."s 后面不可再加逗号)

  ----------------------------------------------------------------

  2.2.4 在追问句之前加逗号:

  1. Do it, won"t you? (Do it 是命令语气,won"t you?是追问)

  2. You know the answer, don"t you?

  3. It is warm today, isn"t it?

  ----------------------------------------------------------------

  2.2.5 一个以副词或副词短语开头的句子,如果它和前面的句子有关联的话,必须在有关副词或副词短语后加上逗号:

  1. She believed he had the talent to succeed. Unfortunately, he was lazy.(后一个句子以副词 unfortunately 开头,同时这个句子和前一个句子有直接的关联)

  ----------------------------------------------------------------

  2.2.6在句子里有超过三个并列词或短语等,在最后一个,and, or, nor等之前加逗号:

  1. He promised to supply the pencils, pens, and notebooks for the class.(简单说就是 pencils, pens, notebooks 要写成 pencils, pens, and notebooks)

  2.  Her mother sells tomatoes, potatoes, apples, and peaches. (...apples, and...)

  3.  She ran up the stairs, across the porch, and into the house. (up the staris, across the porch, into the house 是三个短语,在最后一个加 ,and)

  4.  We all agreed that she was beautiful, that she was intelligent, and that she was ambitious. (三个 that she was...都是子句 )

  -------------------------------------------------------------------

  2.2.7  在句子中加上逗号,以免引起误解:

  1. That she knew where the money was, was news to me. (如果was, was 之间不加逗号,是不是会引起误解呢?)

  2. Outside, the lawn was cluttered with hundreds of broken branches.

  外面的草坪上到处是断枝。

  (如果outside 后去掉逗号, 那意思就变成“在草坪的外面到处是断枝。”)

  ------------------------------------------------------------------

  2.2.8  用逗号分开引用句:

  1.  “You are beautiful,” he said. (这个逗号要放在引号内)

  2.  Our teacher said, “Freedom is not license.” (...said,)

  3.  “No,” she said, “I was just testing your patience.” (No, /....said,)

  4.  “Perhaps,”Tom responded, “I will try anyway.” (Perhaps, /responded,)

  -------------------------------------------------------------------

  2.2.9  逗号用以分开星期、月日、年份:

  1.  On Monday, May 5,2000, her first child was born. (Monday, May 5,2000, )

  2.  On March 8, 2003, he bought a new car. (March 8, 2003, )

  3.  June 2000 is one of the most meaningful of my life. (只有月和年,就不必加逗号)

  --------------------------------------------------------------------

  2.2.10  逗号用以分开地名、省名、国名、街道名、巷弄名等:

  1.  Linda lives at 1234 Amarillo Ave., #1, Palo Alto, CA 94303, U.S.A.

  --------------------------------------------------------------------

  2.2.11  逗号用在 such as 和 especially 的前面:

  1.  They enjoy outdoor sports, such as hiking and riding.

  2.  He likes all extracurricular activities, especially basketballplaying.

  ===========================================================

  2.3  突出句子中某个插入成份(Parenthetical elements):所谓插入成份,是指在句子中去掉它也可成立的成份。插入成份一般是感叹词、状语、副词子句等。

  2.3.1 句子里插入的词、短语、子句等,加上逗号以示插入成份:

  1. He knew, however, that no one would listen to his warning. ( 插入however)

  2.  No, you may not come with us. (插入 No)

  -------------------------------------------------------------------

  2.3.2 用逗号分开“乃此非彼”的结构:

  1. Jane, not Shirley, will attend the meeting. (是 Jane,不是 Shirley)

  2. He wanted to see Mr. Wu, not Mr. Hu. (是吴先生,不是胡先生)

  3. Some say the world will end in ice, not fire. (是冰,不是火)

  4. It was her money, not her charm or personality, that first attracted him. (为的是她的财富,不是为了她的妩媚或个性)

  -------------------------------------------------------------------

  2.3.3 句中有非限制性的词或短语之类,以逗号标出以示插入成份:

  1. Her husband, Bill, is a scientist. (Bill 为插入成份)

  2. Kent Howard, my English teacher, is from America. (插入成份 my English teacher)

  3. Her father, who is a famous scholar, teaches English.(插入成份 who is a famous scholar)

  4. Eleanor, his wife of thirty years, suddenly decided to open her own business. (试将插入成份 his wife of thirty years 去掉,句子是否也能成立?)

  --------------------------------------------------------------------

  2.3.4 句中的城市名如果和它的省、州、国名并列,省、州、国名前后须加逗号:

  1. We visited Hartford, Connecticut, last summer. (Connecticut 为插入成份)

  2. Paris, France, is sometimes called "The City of Lights." (France 为插入成份)

  3. Hartford, Connecticut"s investment in the insurance industry is well known.(Connecticut"s 为所有格式,后面不可加逗号喔)

  ---------------------------------------------------------------------

  2.3.5 句中带着连接词(but, and, or...)的插入成份的前面不可加上逗号:

  1. The Red Sox were leading the league at the end of May, but of course, they always do well in the spring. (but 的后面不可加逗号)

  2. The Tigers spent much of the season at the bottom of the league, and even though they picked up several promising rookies, they expect to be there again next year. (and 的后面不可再加逗号)

  -----------------------------------------------------------

  2.3.6  向人说话时,逗号放在对方名字或称谓之后、之前或者前后都加:

  1.  John, come here. (John, 逗号在名字之后)

  2.  Open the door, John. ( ,John 逗号放在名字之前)

  3.  It is, Sir, not my fault.  ( , Sir, 逗号放在称谓前面和后面)

  ===========================================================

  2.4  替代句子里某个成份

  2.4.1 用逗号替代句子里某部份,表示字词的省略:

  1. The lion is the symbol of courage; the lamb, of meekness. (the lamb, of meekness 原本应该是 the lamb is the symbol of meekness)

  2. George was the hard worker, John, the lazy one. (John, the lazy one 原本应该是 John was the lazy one)

  ===========================================================

  终于搞定。你说英文逗号容易用,还是中文逗号容易用? 

( 责任编辑:招考小编)

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